本文選自農民之路(La Via Campesina )出版的”Understanding Free Trade through the KORUS FTA & the Necessity of Regional Economic Cooperation.”手冊。此手冊是收集了農民之路在首爾及日本兩場「因應亞太地區經濟整合策略會議」的討論內容。著重於討論韓美FTA及TPP之影響，也討論區域整合的另類模式。本文「FTA與TPP對亞太地區人民的衝擊與其反抗」，共有印尼、日本及澳洲三國簽署自由貿易協定之影響分析，為方便閱讀將分次翻譯刊登。
另一個關於生質燃料的政策則是” Lahan Energi Abadidevelopment”。該計畫將開發500萬公頃的土地做為能源供給。不過這個計畫實際上規模遠遠超過500萬公頃；2007年年中，此計畫在印尼卡里曼丹與馬來西亞的交界，新開墾一個面積達180萬公頃的棕櫚農場，並且在2008年底再擴張150萬公頃至馬老奇地區。
農民之路：”Understanding Free Trade through the KORUS FTA & the Necessity of Regional Economic Cooperation.”
In Indonesia, more than 43% of the population is dependent on the agricultural sector. Out of these
people, 56% are either farm laborers (landless) or small farmers (land ownership of about 0.3 hectares). These
statistics reveal that agriculture is a fragile sector that will be directly affected by the WTO and FTA; small farmers will become the most affected elements in this free trade mechanism. The government has had to introduce amendments to existing laws in order to meet the needs of the free market and facilitate free trade negotiations: it has done so, namely, through liberalization, deregulation and privatization.
In December 2005, the EU commission adopted a Plan of Action and Strategy for agrofuels. The EU has a
target of 10% agrofuel consumption by 2020 (approximately 1 to 1.5 million tons). In the report, the
Commission admits the ambitiousness of the EU’s target. As a result, the development of agrofuels will
require significant economic investment. Developing countries in tropical areas are being selected for
agrofuel production due to their capacity for high levels of production and their high productivity due to lower
prices relative to developed countries, It was said that the EU seeks to encourage negotiations to expand the use of raw materials for agrofuels through multilateral and regional free trade agreements. This policy successfully boosts huge palm oil exports to compete here. For example, Southeast Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia have, in particular,
focused on palm oil and cassava production for ethanol.
Another policy on agrofuel is the Lahan Energi Abadi development that amounted to 5 million hectares of
land in order to provide a large energy supply. However, in reality the target was greater than 5 million
hectares. It started with the opening of a new 1.8 million-hectare palm oil plantation on the Kalimantan-
Malaysia border in mid-2007. It will be extended with 1.5 million hectares to Merauke towards the end of
The expansions of palm oil plantations in Indonesia have been seriously threatening the food sovereignty of
the people. This policy has raised agrarian conflict and also the loss of public access to agrarian resources.
Many members of SPI have experienced land grabbing for the development of palm oil plantations. In West
Java, the land clearing for palm oil plantation has cut the flow of irrigation, and peasant’s corn fields have
been seized. In South Sumatra, the opening of 1 million hectares of palm oil plantations has shut off irrigation
for hectares of rice fields. In North Sumatra, peasants who tried to defend their land from land grabbing by
palm oil plantations have been imprisoned. To conclude, the agrofuel industry threatens food sovereignty implementation and is responsible for the loss of millions of tons of local food.
From the consumer’s side, the competition between palm oil for food and palm oil for fuel has raised the
price of cooking oil nationally. The palm oil processing industry prefers to export Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to
Europe at a higher price. In 2006, there was a shortage of cooking oil in Indonesia.
The Free Trade Agreement can take many forms: KORUS FTA, TPP, and the form of regional blocks such
as ASEAN that create neoliberal regionalization. ASEAN has been deepening since the 1990s and is expanding
to another region in the world. Indonesia has signed many FTAs. The 1st FTA was the ASEAN Free Trade
Agreement (AFTA). It eliminated tariff barriers within ASEAN member countries. And its goal is to establish
the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. Since 1992 there has been a trend of neoliberalization. Neoliberal
regionalization has taken many forms: ASEAN + China, ASEAN + India, ASEAN + EU, ASEAN + 6. Indonesia has also signed FTAs with Australia, Turkey, Tunisia, and Pakistan. Obama is pushing the ASEAN countries to
also join the TPPA, Therefore ASEAN must be seen not as an alternative to the TPPA but as a way to achieving
its higher form through the FTAAP. This will have many negative impacts to people.
After the full implementation of the ASEAN + China FTA, trade with China has resulted in a deficit on nuts, fruits, and
cocoa. In addition 180,000 SMEs in Indonesia collapsed in the agriculture and toys industry. Producers are also
becoming retailers since they can’t compete with Chinese production. Potato prices slumped from 7000
rupia (50,000 won) to 3800 rupia (25,000 won) due to the import of cheap Chinese products. This price for
potatoes is below that which farmers can break even. Thus we see a declining income for potato farmers.
People’s forum is resisting and discussing alternatives to ASEAN. In Indonesia, a judicial review of the ASEAN
charter was started, which the government ratified in 2008. Social movements are challenging the ASEAN
charter stating that 2 of its provisions are unconstitutional. While the constitution mentions
economic activity based on “people’s economy” for social justice, the ASEAN charter and the
Comprehensive Economic Agreement b/w Indonesia and the EU’s economic goals just free markets.
We are currently trying to determine how we make people in Indonesia aware about this problem. We are
creating a national farmers’ forum to share information and to share some experience about the FTA. Many
books are being published. We need to make interventions in the public sphere and figure out how to
reveal the truths about the FTA in society. The situation in Indonesia is difficult because there is the optimistic
thinking of: we will sign first and then ask later. We are facing the same problems in our countries. We can
work together against the neoliberal project.